|Accuracy||If statement x is accurate, it is true. Example: “Carbon emissions by man are causing climate changes of planet Earth.”|
|Precision||If statement x is precise, it contains a certain level of detail. Example: “The distance to the moon is .”|
|Accuracy vs. Precision||An accurate statement can be precise to various levels.|
|Truthfulness||Truth is ultimately an issue of accuracy. Truth, like accuracy, comes in gradations of precision.|
|Responsibility|| Only autonomous agents can take responsibility for their actions. In Western society only homo sapiens can be an autonomous agent.
'Taking responsibility' is the act of an autonomous agent that, in light of particular events, affect his/her personal life.
A promise to take responsibility is not the act of doing so - it is just a promise. Responsibility can only be taken as part of ones' conduct (although admitting to have done something may count as part of taking responsibility).
|Informed decision making||The act of using truthful information as the main/only foundation for making decisions.|
|Responsibility of Scientists||Assist society/government to make informed decisions.|
|Scientific Advisor/adviser||Most governments have a scientific advisor to assist in making informed decisions.|
|The importance of precision||Precision is not the primary aim of science, accuracy is.|
|When to be precise||Science aims to be precise when it matters. Example: Global warming - how much do we have to reduce carbon emissions to maintain the current status of the Earth? Is it 350 ppm?|
|Bottom line||Ultimately it is more important to be accurate than precise: Precision does not guaranteed accuracy. Example: “The Moon is 1.23256 m in diameter.”|
|War? Huh! What is it good for?||A scientist can look at war like any other government act which has a purpose, a method and consequences.|
|What history suggests||Most wars only benefit a small group of people, while the majority takes a net loss. Wars also seem to create more problems than they solve.|
|Should scientists participate in war-related activities?||Example: Build bombs or guns whose main purpose is to kill people.|
|Should scientists accept grants from war-related government funds?||Example: DARPA|
|Bottom line||Ultimately, scientists are human. Some issues in government are a matter of emotions and outlook on life, which is beyond science as a practice. However, anything else that relates to information, scientists have an obligation to make informed decisions.|
|Main responsibilities of a scientist|| To improve the state of knowledge in the world.
To share knowledge for the benefit of humankind.
To be truthful.
|Science: the most reliable method for knowledge creation||Because of its power, the responsibility of scientists is probably greater than that of any politician.|
|Scientists should take responsibility for their actions||The scientific community has repeatedly proven to have among the highest ethical standards of any profession. We'd like to keep it that way. It is part of what gives science its power.|