# Center for Analysis and Design of Intelligent Agents

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public:t-701-rem4:philosophy_of_science_i

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public:t-701-rem4:philosophy_of_science_i [2007/09/13 17:06]
thorisson
public:t-701-rem4:philosophy_of_science_i [2008/08/28 16:41] (current)
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* Short overivew: http://nostalgia.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Popper    * Short overivew: http://nostalgia.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Popper

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Philosophy of Science with humor: http://www.science.gb.net/ Philosophy of Science with humor: http://www.science.gb.net/
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-Philosophy of Science hub:

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| The key to the advancement of scientific knowledge. | The ability of individuals and groups to create "coherent stories" of how phenomena in the world are connected and produce rigorous models that support the stories is a necessary condition for scientific progress. | | The key to the advancement of scientific knowledge. | The ability of individuals and groups to create "coherent stories" of how phenomena in the world are connected and produce rigorous models that support the stories is a necessary condition for scientific progress. |

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====Science: Historical Beginnings==== ====Science: Historical Beginnings====
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| Karl Popper \\ (1902 - 1994) | Philosopher. Most famous for his claim that theories can only be tested through the falsification of hypotheses. \\ Book: The Logic of Scientific Discovery (1959) | | Karl Popper \\ (1902 - 1994) | Philosopher. Most famous for his claim that theories can only be tested through the falsification of hypotheses. \\ Book: The Logic of Scientific Discovery (1959) |
| Thomas Kuhn \\ (1922 - 1996) | Philosopher. Most famous for his theory of scientific change as intermittent challenges to the status quo. \\ Book: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962) | | Thomas Kuhn \\ (1922 - 1996) | Philosopher. Most famous for his theory of scientific change as intermittent challenges to the status quo. \\ Book: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962) |
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====Falsification of Hypotheses==== ====Falsification of Hypotheses====
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| Science builds theories | The theory - hypothesis distinction is a convenience. In reality this is a continuum. Which means that theories are in various forms of growth. | | Science builds theories | The theory - hypothesis distinction is a convenience. In reality this is a continuum. Which means that theories are in various forms of growth. |
| Conclusion | We need a mixture of methods during the development of theories. | | Conclusion | We need a mixture of methods during the development of theories. |
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====Why We Need Statistics & When to Use it==== ====Why We Need Statistics & When to Use it====
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| When to use statistics | When trying to uncover relationships between phenomena using measurements of particular limited observations. \\ To have an idea of the generality of a few isolated results, we use statistics.  \\ Statistics is essential for any usability study, because it makes it easy to extrapolate results from experimental data with human subjects. \\ It is essential when we want to generalize from particular observations done with imprecise measuring devices and/or under condtitions where we cannot control all independent variables. | | When to use statistics | When trying to uncover relationships between phenomena using measurements of particular limited observations. \\ To have an idea of the generality of a few isolated results, we use statistics.  \\ Statistics is essential for any usability study, because it makes it easy to extrapolate results from experimental data with human subjects. \\ It is essential when we want to generalize from particular observations done with imprecise measuring devices and/or under condtitions where we cannot control all independent variables. |
| Randomness | Key concept in statistics | | Randomness | Key concept in statistics |
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====Why We Need Simulation and When to Use it==== ====Why We Need Simulation and When to Use it====
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| When to use simulation | When the complexity of that which is to be modeled/understood becomes so great that mathematical models are intractable and hypothesis falsification would take decades, centuries or millenia. | | When to use simulation | When the complexity of that which is to be modeled/understood becomes so great that mathematical models are intractable and hypothesis falsification would take decades, centuries or millenia. |

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==== The key to the advancement of scientific knowledge==== ==== The key to the advancement of scientific knowledge====