# Center for Analysis and Design of Intelligent Agents

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public:rem4:rem4-20:philosophy_of_science_ii

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public:rem4:rem4-20:philosophy_of_science_ii [2020/01/20 15:18]
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public:rem4:rem4-20:philosophy_of_science_ii [2020/01/27 11:43] (current)
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+====The Role of Science: To Explain the Universe====

-====Induction is not Enough: Refutability of Scientific Theories====+|  Scientific Theories  | Deepen our //understanding// of the universe.  |
+|  A Scientific Theory  | 1. Predicts. \\ 2. Supports goal-achievement. \\ 3. Explains. \\ 4. Models (re-create). \\ Any one of these can be partial.   |
+|  Phenomenon  | A phenomenon is any set of (partially or fully) observable/measurable variables in the world. An event, a thing, a system.  |
+|  Full Understanding  | Full/complete understanding of a phenomenon means we can predict any and all aspects of the phenomenon, we can achieve goals with respect to any and all attributes of the phenomenon, we can explain any and all aspects of the phenomenon, and we can model any and all aspects of the phenomenon -- our model is complete.   |
+|  Complete Models  | Allow us to create software simulations that approach a correct and complete representation of the phenomenon.   |

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+====Induction is not Enough: Refutability of Scientific Theories====

|  Karl Popper  | "Induction" as a process for producing **scientific** theories, does not exist in the form proposed.   | |  Karl Popper  | "Induction" as a process for producing **scientific** theories, does not exist in the form proposed.   |
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|  Scientific methods (and fields) evolve from early philosophical considerations  | All sciences have begun as speculations. Math was developed to help with managing complexities in the natural sciences; we need other, more powerful tools for some of the remaining problems.  | |  Scientific methods (and fields) evolve from early philosophical considerations  | All sciences have begun as speculations. Math was developed to help with managing complexities in the natural sciences; we need other, more powerful tools for some of the remaining problems.  |
|  Darwin's theory of evolution  | According to a large proportion of modern scientists in all fields, Darwin is the greatest scientist of the last milennium. Because his theory is not falsifiable it would rank high on Popper's list of **bad** scientific theories.  | |  Darwin's theory of evolution  | According to a large proportion of modern scientists in all fields, Darwin is the greatest scientist of the last milennium. Because his theory is not falsifiable it would rank high on Popper's list of **bad** scientific theories.  |
-|  Freud  | An important thing to keep in mind is not to let egos and personal admiration get in the way of critical thought. Perhaps it may be justified that Freudian methods are still being used in clinical treatment of mental patients, but perhaps not: We should let the numbers, as produced by comparative experiments and comparative studies, tell us whether these methods are worth holding on to. (If such comparative studies are too expensive to do properly, perhaps we should value mental sanity more!)  |+|  \\ Freud  | An important thing to keep in mind is not to let egos and personal admiration get in the way of critical thought. Perhaps it may be justified that Freudian methods are still being used in clinical treatment of mental patients, but perhaps not: We should let the numbers, as produced by comparative experiments and comparative studies, tell us whether these methods are worth holding on to. (If such comparative studies are too expensive to do properly, perhaps we should value mental sanity more!)  |
|  Freud and Marx:  \\ twilight zone  | These teachings sit somewhere between philosophy and a mature science. (Freud was one of the first major names to put forth the idea that the mind has parts.) As with all philosophy and science one must look at what they said when they said it and put aside idealism and personal admiration.   | |  Freud and Marx:  \\ twilight zone  | These teachings sit somewhere between philosophy and a mature science. (Freud was one of the first major names to put forth the idea that the mind has parts.) As with all philosophy and science one must look at what they said when they said it and put aside idealism and personal admiration.   |
|  Simulation  | Only recently have we developed a tool that are powerful enough to study many of the phenomena that we experience every day, such as the mechanisms of commerce, the forces of the cosmos, the mysteries of thought. That tool is computer simulation.  | |  Simulation  | Only recently have we developed a tool that are powerful enough to study many of the phenomena that we experience every day, such as the mechanisms of commerce, the forces of the cosmos, the mysteries of thought. That tool is computer simulation.  |
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-====The Role of Science: To Explain the Universe====

-|  Scientific Theories  | Deepen our //understanding// of the universe.  |
-|  A Scientific Theory  | 1. Predicts. \\ 2. Supports goal-achievement. \\ 3. Explains. \\ 4. Models (re-create). \\ Any one of these can be partial.   |
-|  Phenomenon  | A phenomenon is any set of (partially or fully) observable/measurable variables in the world. An event, a thing, a system.  |
-|  Full Understanding  | Full/complete understanding of a phenomenon means we can predict any and all aspects of the phenomenon, we can achieve goals with respect to any and all attributes of the phenomenon, we can explain any and all aspects of the phenomenon, and we can model any and all aspects of the phenomenon -- our model is complete.   |
-|  Complete Models  | Allow us to create software simulations that approach a correct and complete representation of the phenomenon.   |

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