# Center for Analysis and Design of Intelligent Agents

### Site Tools

public:rem4:rem4-16:science_ethics

# Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

public:rem4:rem4-16:science_ethics [2016/10/17 11:00]
thorisson2
public:rem4:rem4-16:science_ethics [2016/10/20 19:32] (current)
thorisson2
Line 5: Line 5:
\\ \\

-===Concepts=== +===Concepts & Definitions===
-| Accuracy        | If statement X is accurate, it is true. Example: "Carbon emissions by man are causing climate changes of planet Earth."  | + Accuracy        | If statement X is accurate, it is true. Example: "Carbon emissions by man are causing climate changes of planet Earth."  |
-| Precision       | If statement X is precise, it contains a certain level of detail. Example: "The distance to the moon is 358.094 Km."   | + Precision       | If statement X is precise, it contains a certain level of detail. Example: "The distance to the moon is 358.094 Km."   |
-| Accuracy vs. Precision  | An accurate statement can be precise to various levels. So can an inaccurate one.  | + Accuracy vs. Precision  | An accurate statement can be precise to various levels. So can an inaccurate one.  |
-| Truthfulness    | Truth is ultimately an issue of accuracy. Truth, like accuracy, comes in gradations of precision.   |  + Truthfulness    | Truth is ultimately an issue of accuracy. Truth, like accuracy, comes in gradations of precision.   |
-| Responsibility  | Only autonomous agents can take responsibility for their actions. In Western society only homo sapiens can be an autonomous agent. \\ 'Taking responsibility' is the act of an autonomous agent that, in light of particular events, affect his/her life and existence. \\ A promise to take responsibility is not the act of doing so - it is just a promise. Responsibility can only be taken as part of ones' conduct (although admitting to have done something may count as part of taking responsibility).   | + Responsibility  | Only autonomous agents can take responsibility for their actions. In Western society only homo sapiens can be an autonomous agent. \\ 'Taking responsibility' is the act of an autonomous agent that, in light of particular events, affect his/her life and existence. \\ A promise to take responsibility is not the act of doing so - it is just a promise. Responsibility can only be taken as part of ones' conduct (although admitting to have done something may count as part of taking responsibility).   |
-| Informed decision making  | The act of using truthful information as the main/only foundation for making decisions.  |+ Informed decision making  | The act of using truthful information as the main/only foundation for making decisions.  |

\\ \\
Line 17: Line 17:
\\ \\

-===Science & Governance=== +===Science & Responsibility===
-Responsibility of Scientists  | Assist society/government to make informed decisions.   | + Main responsibilities of a scientist  | To improve the state of knowledge in the world. \\ To share knowledge for the benefit of humankind. \\  To be truthful.   |
-Scientific Advisor/adviser  | Most governments have a scientific advisor to assist in making informed decisions.   |+ Science: the most reliable method for knowledge creation  | Because of its power, the responsibility of scientists is probably greater than that of any politician.    |
+|  Scientists should take responsibility for their actions  | The scientific community has repeatedly proven to have among the highest ethical standards of any profession. We'd like to keep it that way. It is part of what gives science its power.   |

\\ \\
Line 25: Line 26:
\\ \\

-===Science & Precision=== +
-The importance of precision  | Precision is not the primary aim of science, accuracy is.    |  +
-| When to be precise  | Science aims to be precise when it mattersExample: Global warming - how much do we have to reduce carbon emissions to maintain the current status of the Earth? Is it 350 ppm?   | +===Science & Governance===
-Bottom line  | Ultimately it is more important to be accurate than precise: Precision does not guarantee accuracy. Example: "The Moon is 1.23256 m in diameter."  +|  Responsibility of Scientists  | Assist society/government to make informed decisions.   |
+ Scientific Advisor/adviser  | Most governments have a scientific advisor to assist in making informed decisions  |

\\ \\
Line 47: Line 49:
\\ \\

-===Science & Responsibility=== +===Declarations of Ethical Conduct - Examples===
-Main responsibilities of a scientist  | To improve the state of knowledge in the world\\ To share knowledge for the benefit of humankind. \\  To be truthful.   + [[https://www.knaw.nl/en/news/publications/ethical-and-legal-aspects-of-informatics-research|Dutch Royal Society]]  | {{rem4:20160919-summary-eng-advisory-ethische-en-juridische-aspecten-van-informaticaonderzoek-web.pdf|Ethical & Legal Aspects of Informatics Research}}  - Dutch Royal Society, 2016  |
-Sciencethe most reliable method for knowledge creation  | Because of its power, the responsibility of scientists is probably greater than that of any politician   + [[http://www.iiim.is|IIIM]]  | Ethics Policy of the Icelandic Institute for Intelligent Machines \\ First such policy in the world. \\ Denounces military/war-related funding for AI and informatics research
-Scientists should take responsibility for their actions  The scientific community has repeatedly proven to have among the highest ethical standards of any profession. We'd like to keep it that way. It is part of what gives science its power.   |+  |   |

\\ \\
Line 56: Line 58:
\\ \\

-===Declarations of Ethical Conduct - Examples=== +
-|  [[https://www.knaw.nl/en/news/publications/ethical-and-legal-aspects-of-informatics-research|Dutch Royal Society]]  | {{rem4:20160919-summary-eng-advisory-ethische-en-juridische-aspecten-van-informaticaonderzoek-web.pdf|Ethical & Legal Aspects of Informatics Research}}  - Dutch Royal Society2016  +===Science & Precision===
-|  [[http://www.iiim.is|IIIM]]  | Ethics Policy of the Icelandic Institute for Intelligent Machines \\ First such policy in the world. \\ Denounces military/war-related funding for AI and informatics research.   | +|  The importance of precision  | Precision is not the primary aim of scienceaccuracy is.    |
-    |+|  When to be precise  | Science aims to be precise when it matters. Example: Global warming - how much do we have to reduce carbon emissions to maintain the current status of the Earth? Is it 350 ppm?   |
+ Bottom line  Ultimately it is more important to be accurate than precise: Precision does not guarantee accuracy. Example: "The Moon is 1.23256 m in diameter."

\\ \\
\\ \\
\\ \\
+
+
+
\\ \\

EOF EOF